When purchasing a business it is essential for buyers to consider the potential tax implications and strategies to minimize them. Two key tax considerations are the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and provincial sales tax (PST). The method of acquisition, whether through share or asset transfer, significantly impacts the tax outcome. In general, when buying a business by transferring shares, GST is often exempt, as shares are considered financial instruments. However, in asset transfers, the GST exemption does not apply, so careful evaluation of the transaction is necessary to determine GST obligations. To further complicate matters, the choice between share and asset transactions can also affect provincial sales tax liabilities. Real estate holdings within the business, for instance, can significantly impact property transfer tax costs.

To navigate these complexities and minimize tax burdens, buyers should conduct a thorough tax assessment and consider seeking professional guidance to make informed decisions during the acquisition process. An asset purchase as opposed to a share purchase can be better for the buyer when considering potential tax implications, however, it tends to cost the seller more. Therefore, a seller may demand a higher price in an asset deal to offset its reduced proceeds.

In a share purchase transaction, the purchaser becomes responsible for any unpaid GST, source deductions and income tax that was to be paid by the target company. These tax compliance matters could expose the purchaser to significant liabilities after the share purchase. Reviewing all financial matters including tax compliance by your tax/accounting consultant is essential. Unknown tax liabilities could be mitigated by a holdback (from the purchase proceeds) to be held for a set period of time after the share purchase to meet any unknown tax obligations.

When acquiring a business, prospective buyers should give careful attention to the realm of intellectual property (IP). Protecting and leveraging these intangible assets is paramount. A buyer would do well to consider any trademarks, and whether they are owned by the business or individuals, and to ensure they are registered. A buyer should evaluate the business’s brand recognition in the market.

They should also assess patents and inventions, scrutinize copyrighted material, and confirm ownership and usage rights. A buyer of a business should not overlook the safeguarding of trade secrets and confidential information, as these may be pivotal to the business’s success.

Moreover, to further ensure the value of the business the buyer is looking to acquire, they should delve into the web of existing non-compete and non-disclosure agreements, as they could impact the business’s post-acquisition operations.

The buyer should examine licensing agreements and the potential need for updates. During the due diligence process, the buyer should uncover any lingering IP issues, such as disputes or potential or ongoing lawsuits. Post-acquisition, the buyer may wish to chart a clear IP strategy to maximize the value of the assets, including any purchased IP, and potentially expand the business’s IP portfolio.

Collaborating with legal experts and IP professionals will help ensure a seamless transition and long-term protection for your intellectual property investments.

Purchasing a business can be an exciting endeavor. However, it comes with a complex regulatory landscape that demands a prudent buyer’s attention. To ensure a seamless transition and long-term success, it is crucial to be aware of various potential permits, licenses, and compliance matters.

Firstly, business licenses are a fundamental requirement, with specific criteria varying by municipality. A buyer will need to ensure that the business is registered and in good standing. Industry-specific regulations, zoning and land-use requirements, employment standards, and environmental regulations also factor in, which all demand careful consideration.

Additionally, a buyer will need to consider federal regulations, tax obligations, and intellectual property concerns. To navigate these complexities effectively, consulting with legal and business professionals is highly advisable. By addressing permits, licenses, and regulatory compliance diligently, a buyer can avoid many potential roadblocks on the way to operating their new business.

Negotiating a business purchase agreement requires a systematic approach.

We recommend engaging experienced legal and financial professionals to guide you through the process. A recommended step to begin with is to send a non-binding Letter of Intent (LOI) that outlines key terms and conduct thorough due diligence to uncover any issues.

Either on your own or with the assistance of counsel, negotiate the purchase price, terms, and financing, taking into account asset and liability allocation, as well as ongoing involvement by the seller. Ensure you address essential legal components, including whether it is an asset or share purchase, employee considerations, tax considerations, and non-disclosure and non-compete clauses.

Finally, ensure the agreement is meticulously reviewed by your counsel before the closing date. A well-structured purchase agreement and professional guidance are critical for a successful business acquisition and can help avoid headaches and pitfalls in the future.

The acquisition of a business is a multi-faceted endeavour, where understanding and navigating a web of contracts and agreements is paramount. At the heart of the acquisition process lies the Purchase Agreement. This all-encompassing contract outlines the terms and conditions of the sale, from the purchase price to the assets and liabilities to be transferred. It is the lynchpin of the transaction and warrants thorough review. Employee and customer relationships are the lifeblood of any business. Consequently, review and, in the event of an asset sale, amend Employment Contracts to retain key staff, and to ensure you are aware of the existing contracts. If you are purchasing the shares of a business, you will want to review the employment contracts as you will inherit the employees on the same terms. Analyze Customer Contracts to ensure they are transferrable, and address any clauses related to change of control. Likewise, scrutinize Supplier Contracts, assess their transferability, and gauge the favorability of their terms. Lease Agreements for the business premises should be reviewed, and you should secure assurance that they can be assigned to the new owner. Intellectual property is another critical facet, and if applicable, inspect related agreements to ensure a seamless transition of ownership. For franchises, study the Franchise Agreement thoroughly and secure approval from the franchisor for the change in ownership. Do not forget to examine any outstanding Loan Agreements, ensure you understand their terms, and determine your responsibility for repayment. Furthermore, look into existing insurance policies to assess coverage and determine the need for additional coverage, such as liability insurance.

The art of crafting a successful business acquisition also involves careful consideration of Warranties and Representations from the seller, employment and severance agreements for affected employees, Non-Competition and Non-Disclosure Agreements to safeguard sensitive information, and if applicable, agreements related to environmental and regulatory compliance. In this intricate dance of contracts and agreements, seeking guidance from legal counsel is strongly advised. The exact array of agreements may vary depending on the nature of the business, industry, and unique circumstances of the acquisition, so meticulous attention to detail is the name of the game when you choose to step into the world of business acquisition, and retaining legal and accounting professionals can ensure you are protecting your interests.

When acquiring a business, whether in British Columbia or elsewhere, safeguarding yourself from inheriting the seller’s liabilities is of paramount importance. Several strategies can help mitigate these risks.

First, a comprehensive due diligence process is vital, specifically you will want to examine the seller’s financial, legal, and operational history with expert assistance from lawyers and accountants. A well-structured purchase agreement is equally essential, and it should delineate which liabilities you will assume and which the seller will retain. Including indemnification clauses within this agreement will offer protection by allowing you to seek compensation for any unforeseen liabilities after the sale.

Choosing an asset purchase over a share purchase can limit exposure to the seller’s liabilities, while holdback provisions and environmental assessments may provide further security. You will want to carefully review existing contracts, renegotiate where applicable, and invest in insurance coverage to guard against unforeseen liabilities. Finally, legal guidance is indispensable to ensure that your interests are comprehensively protected throughout the acquisition process. Tailoring these strategies to your specific situation is key, underscoring the importance of diligence, knowledge, and proactive measures to minimize the risk of assuming unwanted liabilities.

It is essential to conduct due diligence when buying a business to ensure you are aware of any potential liabilities, legal issues, or other considerations related to the specific business you are acquiring. Consulting with your lawyer and your accountant is highly recommended to make an informed decision based on your unique circumstances.

Before buying a business, you should focus on the financial, legal, and operational aspects of the business you wish to purchase. You will want to ensure that you can receive a clear title to any assets and/or shares. It is important to examine the company’s financial statements, tax records, and outstanding debts. You will also want to review all relevant contracts, corporate records, and potential legal disputes. You should also assess operational efficiency and the workforce and investigate customer relationships, market positioning, and competitive landscape. You should analyze supplier contracts and potential supply chain risks. If applicable, conduct environmental and property assessments, and ensure intellectual property ownership is clear, if applicable. Examine employee contracts, potential severance obligations, and compliance with labor regulations. If premises are leased, review the vendor’s lease obligations and the right of the vendor to assign the lease to you.

You should also verify the business’s compliance with any industry-specific regulations, licenses, and permits. You may also wish to seek customer feedback and references. Another step you should consider is to evaluate the technology infrastructure and IT systems. Review future financial projections and the business’s legal ownership and structure. You should confirm the transferability of supplier agreements and licenses to ensure you are getting the benefit of the business you are purchasing. We recommend engaging professionals for expert assistance and insights throughout the process, including lawyers and accountants. Thorough due diligence is essential to make an informed and secure business acquisition.

The choice of a legal structure for buying a business depends on various factors, including your business goals, tax considerations, liability concerns, and the nature of the business you’re acquiring.

Here are some common legal structures you might consider:

1) Sole Proprietorship: If you plan to operate a business by yourself and want a simple structure, a sole proprietorship may be suitable. However, keep in mind that you will be personally liable for the business’s debts and obligations. An advantage is that you may write off losses from your business against your personal income tax, so a sole proprietorship may be a good choice when you expect there to be operating losses.

2) Partnership: If you are buying a business with one or more partners, a general partnership might be a suitable option. A partnership does not require a formal agreement, and can be presumed when two or more persons are embarking on a business venture together, however, having a written partnership agreement is advisable, as both parties can set out clear expectations. Partnerships offer shared ownership and management responsibilities and are similar to a sole proprietorship, however, a drawback is that the partners are typically personally liable for the partnership’s debts.

3) Corporation: Setting up a corporation can provide limited liability protection for the owners (shareholders) and may offer potential tax advantages. They are more expensive to set up and maintain than either a sole proprietorship or a partnership. Corporations are a common choice for larger businesses. In BC, you can incorporate under the Business Corporations Act (BCA), or you may choose to incorporate as a federal corporation under the Canada Business Corporations Act (CBCA).

4) Cooperative: If you plan to involve the employees or customers in the ownership and decision-making, you might consider a cooperative structure. Cooperative structures distribute both the risk and the reward among its members.

The choice between the various available structures should be made with the assistance of legal and accounting professionals who can assess your specific situation. There are other potential limited liability options for structures to consider based on the unique circumstances of each business.

Consider factors such as liability protection, tax implications, the number of owners, and your long-term business goals. Ensuring to consult with professionals when considering how to structure your business can help reduce potential issues down the road, as each business is different and your unique circumstances should be taken into account when deciding on a business structure.

In British Columbia, a common question is accessibility to a company’s list of shareholders (actually called the “central securities register”). This article will explore who can request this information and the necessary steps to obtain it.

Accessing Shareholder Information: Who Can Request?

The first question that arises is: who has the right to request a copy of a company’s central securities register? The answer is relatively straightforward: any person can apply to a company for a list of the names and addresses of shareholders and the number of shares of each class or series of shares held by each of the shareholders.

Obtaining the Central Securities Register: The Process

To receive a copy of the central securities register, the requesting party must follow a structured procedure. First, they must submit a written application under section 49(1) of the British Columbia Business Corporations Act (BCA) to the company or the person who has custody or control of the central securities register. Alongside the application, an affidavit must be included, providing the applicant’s name, mailing address, and a statement affirming the limited use of the list.

The applicant must confirm that the list of shareholders will only be used for specific and limited reasons: to influence the voting of the shareholders of the company at a meeting of shareholders; to acquire or sell securities of the company; to use in an amalgamation or similar reorganization process involving the company; to call a meeting; or to identify the shareholders of an unlimited liability company. Any other use of the list is unacceptable and not permitted by the BCA. Finally, a prescribed fee, which can go up to $0.50 per page as per the Regulation, must be paid. An affidavit is a written statement the writer has sworn or affirmed that the contents are true. You can have a lawyer or a notary assist you to swear or affirm an affidavit.

Company Obligations and General Inspection Rights

Once an application is received, the company or controlling party must act promptly, providing the requested list up to a date specified in the list that is not more than 14 days before the application’s receipt date. The delivery method should be as agreed upon, or if no agreement exists, by mail or for pick-up by the applicant.
In addition to specific provisions regarding central securities registers, the BCA grants some general inspection rights to certain individuals. Current directors have the right to inspect records without charge. Any person, including the public, may inspect a company’s central securities register during statutory business hours, with an inspection fee capped at $10 per day. Companies also have the option to impose restrictions on inspection through ordinary resolutions.

Additional Considerations and Conclusion

It is crucial to consider the company’s Articles, as they may contain provisions regarding who can inspect corporate records. Additionally, if the company is an amalgamating foreign corporation, specific regulations apply. Certain types of companies, such as public companies, pre-existing reporting companies, community contribution companies, and financial institutions, may grant broader public access to their records.

In conclusion, access to a company’s central securities register in British Columbia is governed by specific rules and regulations outlined in the BCA. While any person can request this information, they must follow a formal application process, include an affidavit, and pay a prescribed fee. Companies and controlling parties have clear obligations to provide this information, ensuring transparency and accountability in corporate affairs. It’s also important to be aware of general inspection rights and any additional provisions in the company’s Articles that may impact access to records.


Salary arbitration ensures fair compensation for players and promotes negotiations between teams and players. Before the arbitration hearing, players and teams have the opportunity to negotiate and reach an agreement on a contract, which may help them avoid the arbitration process. In this blog, we’ll explore the distinct salary arbitration systems used in Major League Baseball (MLB) and the National Hockey League (NHL), shedding light on their differences and the benefits they offer to players and teams.

MLB’s Salary Arbitration

MLB employs the “final-offer” arbitration system to resolve salary disputes between players and their teams. A three-arbitrator panel, handpicked by the MLB Players Association and the MLB Labor Relations Department, is responsible for the arbitration process. The panel considers proposals put forth by both parties in a hearing. During the hearing, the panel weighs several criteria, including the player’s past contributions, career consistency, compensation history, comparative salaries, and the team’s recent performance and public acceptance. After hearing arguments from both sides, the panel chooses either the player’s or the club’s salary figure for the upcoming season.

The final-offer system stimulates negotiations by encouraging each side to present more realistic figures. The arbitrator’s likelihood of choosing the opposing side’s offer motivates compromise, making the more reasonable demand or offer more likely to prevail.

NHL’s Salary Arbitration

In the NHL, both players and teams may elect salary arbitration. The NHL’s salary arbitration system is referred to as conventional arbitration. In this process, negotiators present their offers and arguments to an arbitrator. The arbitrator then makes a final decision, which could either align with one of the offers presented or fall outside of those proposals.

The hearing is presided over by a neutral arbitrator chosen from a group of eight members, all affiliated with the National Academy of Arbitrators. Each side, represented by the NHL Players’ Association (NHLPA)/player and the NHL team, is allotted ninety minutes to present their case, including counter-arguments and comparisons of players from the opposing party. They present their offers by using statistical criteria to identify contracts similar to the player’s and justify where the player stands in relation to those contracts. The arbitrator’s ability to exercise flexibility in salary selection fosters fair and reasonable resolutions, ensuring a well-balanced approach to determining salaries.



In conclusion, salary arbitration is an essential mechanism in MLB and the NHL to settle contract disputes between players and teams. The primary distinction between the systems lies in how arbitrators handle the offers. In MLB, the arbitrators must choose one of the two presented offers, while in the NHL’s system, they have the flexibility to select a salary figure not proposed by either side. These arbitration processes actively encourage negotiations, making them vital tools for ensuring equitable compensation and maintaining the competitiveness of both leagues.