The purpose of this blog is to make you aware of a recent change in the law with regard to Wills.

The BC Wills Estates and Succession Act (WESA) permits “Multiple Wills” to be used to deal with the assets of a deceased person located in BC.  The purpose behind creating Multiple Wills is to avoid the costs of applying for Probate of the Will.

Probate of a Will is a court process that confirms the validity of a Will and the Executor’s authority to act under it.  If there are assets under the Will that are controlled by third parties such as the Land Title Office (real estate) or a financial institution (bank accounts), these parties are not usually willing to accept the Executor’s authority based solely on the Will.  They require that the validity of the Will and the Executor’s authority also be confirmed by the Court.  The process of securing that confirmation is called “Probate”.

Applying for Probate can be a cumbersome and often costly procedure.  The Executor must list all of the deceased’s assets that are to be dealt with under the Will.  There is also a tax associated with applying for probate of 1.4% of all assets that have been listed ($14,000 per $1,000,000).

Shares of closely-held private companies do not require the consent of third parties.  The title of the shares is not controlled by a third-party, but rather by the company’s Directors.  The BC Business Corporations Act specifically confirms that these Directors can authorize a transfer of the deceased’s shares based on the Will alone, without requiring a Probate of the Will.  Shareholder loans due to the will-maker also do not require Probate.

It is for this reason that it may be advisable to create Multiple Wills.  One Will shall deal with almost all of your assets (the “General Will”) and another Will can be created that deals exclusively with your private company shares and any shareholder loans that are due to you (the “Restricted Will”).  By having the Multiple Wills, only the assets under the General Will would be subject to Probate which will allow you to avoid significant probate taxes on the value of your private company shares and shareholder loans (as these assets are covered off by the Restricted Will).

If you only have one Will that deals with all of your assets then the 1.4% probate tax would apply to all of the assets under the Will.

A Multiple Will estate plan can save a significant amount of probate taxes and can provide some privacy for company related matters.  If you have significant assets in the form of private company shares or shareholder loans and you wish to save Probate taxes you should consider Multiple Wills.  The savings in Probate taxes should significantly exceed the legal costs associated with preparation of the General Will and Restricted Will.

In the recent case of Trudeau v Turpin, 2019 BCSC 150, the Supreme Court of British Columbia considered the concept of undue influence and the application of section 52 of the British Columbia Wills, Estates and Succession Act. “Undue influence” refers to a situation where a will-maker has been improperly influenced such that the Will does not reflect the will-maker’s genuine intention. Section 52 of WESA considers a situation where another person commences an action claiming that a Will results from the undue influence of another person. If the claim suggests that a person:


  • was in a position with respect to the deceased person where there was the potential for dependence or domination; and
  • that the person used that position to improperly influence the will-maker.


the party alleging undue influence must only prove that the person allegedly exerting undue influence was in a position where the potential for dependence or domination of the will-maker was present. Once this is established, the party seeking to defend the Will must prove that the Will was not created as a result of the undue influence of that person.



The Facts of the Case


In this case, the will-maker was particularly close with one of her four daughters and in her Will left:


  • 60% of her estate to that daughter;
  • 30% to another daughter; and
  • 5% each to the last two daughters.


The other daughters argued that by virtue of the strength of the relationship between their mother and the favoured daughter and the fact that the mother was dependent on her, the Will was a product of undue influence. The Court considered section 52 of WESA and ultimately found that the other daughters failed to establish that the favoured daughter was in a position where the potential for dependence or domination was present. The Court further stated that, regardless of section 52 of WESA, the evidence did not suggest that the favoured daughter exerted any undue influence.


In particular, the Court noted that:


  • the favoured daughter never exhibited aggressive or suggestive behaviour;
  • the will-maker had a journal that had confirmed her wishes as early as 1996 (and continued to express a desire to change her Will to reflect these wishes);
  • there was evidence that the will-maker had a dominating personality with her children, including the favoured daughter;
  • the daughter’s demeanor suggested she was not capable of exerting undue influence;
  • when her mother made an earlier Will, the favoured daughter convinced her mother to distribute her estate equally between her children;
  • the will-maker met privately with her lawyer; and
  • the experienced lawyer had no concerns that there was any undue influence present when the will-maker made the Will.


Estate Planning – Considerations when Adding a Child as Joint Tenant to your Property

Many parents put their children on title to their residence as a form of estate planning. While this can help avoid probate fees and possibly assist with ease of administration of an estate, the case of Gully v. Gully, 2018 BCSC 1590 [Gully], demonstrates that parents must be careful when adding children onto title to their residence.

In Gully, a mother added her son as a joint tenant on title to her Burnaby property. She did so based on legal advice she received, including that her estate could avoid probate fees. She did not tell her son that he had been added as a joint tenant to title of the property.

In August of 2017, the son, and his company, consented to a judgment of $800,000.00 in favour of Ledcor Construction Limited (“Ledcor”). Ledcor discovered that the son was on title to the property and registered their certificate of judgment on the son’s undivided half interest in the property.

The mother sought a declaration, amongst other things, that the son held the property on a resulting trust for her estate. The court found that the son did not hold the property on a resulting trust for the estate and permitted Ledcor to retain their judgment on title, ultimately stating:

 [24]        Ms. Gully took a risk in registering her son as a joint tenant on her property. Whether she was properly advised of that risk is not before me. However, once she made the decision to register an interest in the Burnaby Property in Mr. Gully’s name, third party creditors of Mr. Gully became entitled to register judgments against Mr. Gully’s interest in the Burnaby property.

If you would like to book an appointment with any of our estate planning lawyers, please contact Heath Law LLP at
250-753-2202 or TOLL FREE: 1-866-753-2202.

Wills and Estate Law – Court Considerations in Wills Variation Cases

In the recent case of Peterson v. Welwood, 2018 BCSC 1379 (“Peterson”), a son sought, amongst other things, to vary his father’s will for failing to make provision which was adequate, just, and equitable in the circumstances.

In making its analysis, the Court stated that the following considerations have been accepted as informing the existence and strength of a testator’s moral duty to independent children:

  • the relationship between the testator and claimant, including abandonment, neglect and estrangement by one or the other;
  • the size of the estate;
  • contributions by the claimant;
  • any reasonably held expectations of the claimant;
  • the standard of living of the testator and claimant;
  • gifts and benefits made by the testator outside the will;
  • the testator’s reasons for disinheriting;
  • financial need and other personal circumstances, including disability, of the claimant;
  • misconduct or poor character of the claimant; and
  • competing claimants and other beneficiaries (para 190).

Relevant to the inquiry in Peterson was the fact that the plaintiff’s father had put the plaintiff on title to the father’s residence as a joint tenant, and the plaintiff became the sole owner of the property after his father died. The Plaintiff also received certain Canada Savings Bonds directly from the Deceased.

In balancing the factors noted above, the Court ultimately refused to vary the Deceased’s Will and found as follows:

[246] The plaintiff undoubtedly believes that his father has treated him unfairly. The Deceased’s disappointment and mistrust in his son, whether justified or not, appears to have precipitated the change in his estate planning. However, even with the change, the plaintiff received approximately 51% of the Deceased’s assets as of the date of death. This disposition was one of a range of possible dispositions of his assets. In all the circumstances, I am unable to conclude that the Deceased chose an option that fell outside the range of options that might be considered appropriate by a contemporary judicious parent. The appellate authorities have repeatedly cautioned that if a will-maker arranges his affairs in a manner that falls within the range of options that might be considered appropriate by a contemporary judicious parent, the will-maker’s testamentary autonomy must be respected.

If you have a question about a wills variation issue, please contact Heath Law LLP at 250-753-2202 and ask to speak to someone in the Wills and Estates Department.

Ever since 2015, when the Supreme Court of Canada decided in Carter v Canada (Attorney General) that a prohibition on physician-assisted suicide was unconstitutional, Canada has had to redefine what end of life care means and what rights individuals have at this time. This is an ongoing process that will likely continue for many years.

The Supreme Court declared that it violated an individual’s rights to life, liberty, and security of the person to be denied medical assistance in dying (“MAiD”) if the person consents, and if they had a grievous and irremediable medical condition that causes enduring and intolerable suffering. In response to Carter, the federal government passed a law that allowed an individual to receive MAiD, but only if they met the conditions in Carter and if their natural death had become reasonably foreseeable.

The new law has been the subject of another constitutional challenge by the BC Civil Liberties Association, which was one of the plaintiffs in the Carter decision in 2015. They argue that the current law is overly restrictive, and that it excludes people with multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease that should be allowed to have access to MAiD.

The discussion around MAiD continues in the courts, Parliament, legislatures, and in our homes. If you or a loved one is considering MAiD, be sure to research and understand the legal and personal implications of this important decision.

If you need legal advice on medical assistance in dying, end of life planning, or any other law related inquiry, please contact us.

Not every attempt to make a valid Will is successful. The Wills Estates and Succession Act (WESA) of British Columbia has certain requirements that must be established and proven if the Will is to be deemed valid.

There is an age requirement that is designated by s. 36 of the WESA. S. 36 states that a person who is 16 years or older and is mentally capable may make a Will. A Will that is made by someone under 16 is therefore presumptively invalid.

There are other somewhat more technical requirements needed to make a valid Will found in s. 37 of the WESA. For a Will to be valid it must be (a) in writing, (b) signed at its end by the Will-maker or the signature at the end must be acknowledged by the Will-maker as his or hers, in the presence of 2 or more witnesses present at the same time, and (c) signed by 2 or more of the witnesses in the presence of the Will-maker. S. 40 of the WESA provides the age requirements for witnesses to a Will. Signing witnesses to a Will must be 19 years of age or older.

Once the technical requirements for making a Will are met there are also limitations to the type of property that can be gifted in a Will. S. 41 of WESA states that a person may by Will, make a gift of property to which he or she is entitled at law or in equity at the time of his or her death, including property acquired before, on or after the date the Will is made. This effectively means that one is only able to gift property that the Will-maker actually has or is entitled to.

Creating a Will is a significant life event that needs to be attended to with the proper diligence and care. If you would like to create your first Will or have any questions regarding your existing Will please contact Heath Law LLP at 250-753-2202.

A Will that contains unclear provisions may be found to be invalid or the particular gifts that are the subject of the unclear provisions may fail. People attempting to write their own Wills may be unaware that the Will is unclear. However, there may be more than one possible interpretation that the Will-maker did not anticipate which may make the provision seem unclear.

If a gift is unclear, a Court may be asked to interpret the Will to determine the Will-maker’s true intention. This will result in significant legal expenses for the Estate and the Court may not be able to determine the Will-maker’s true intent. An unclear Will may result in an intestacy (i.e., when a person dies without having a Will) which, in turn, could result in an unintended person receiving a gift or benefit by virtue of the default provisions of the British Columbia Wills, Estate, and Succession Act (WESA).

“Fixing” Ambiguities in a Will

Just because a Will contains an unclear provision, does not necessarily mean that the Will will be found to be invalid or that the gift containing the unclear provision must fail. Under WESA, there are provisions that can cure certain errors contained in a Will. However, these provisions cannot fix a Will where the Will-maker did not have the required mental capacity or the Will-maker was unduly influenced when making the Will.

Under WESA, a Will that is not in a typically acceptable form may be found to be valid if the Court determines that the Will represents the intentions of the deceased person. For example, the Court may consider whether a journal/diary entry represents the testamentary intention of the deceased.

Alternatively, a Court may also be able to fix an error in a Will if it appears that there is uncertainty because of a simple mistake made by the Will-maker or the person who drafted the Will or because the person who drafted the Will misunderstood the Will-maker’s intention. In these circumstances, the court may choose to look to evidence of the Will-maker’s intention to determine what his or her true intention was regarding the unclear provision. An application to fix an error contained in a Will must generally be made within 180 days of probate being granted.

Consequences of Faulty Estate Planning

Wills are intricate instruments where details matter.  The preparation of a Will requires care and diligence.  If improper care is taken, certain gifts may not be received by the person or entity that the Will-maker intended.  This article will canvas two areas where the gifts in a Will may not be distributed in accordance with the Will-makers wishes.

A gift could be deemed ineffective for many reasons including the beneficiary of a gift pre-deceasing the Will-maker or if the beneficiary mistakenly signs the Will as a witness to the Will.  British Columbia has enacted legislation found in s. 46 of the Wills Estates and Succession Act (“WESA”) to deal with these ineffective gifts.  A Will can provide for alternative beneficiaries to the gift, in which case, if the gift was deemed ineffective for any reason, the gift would go to that alternative beneficiary.  There is also a special rule if the ineffective gift was made to a special class of person.  The special class under the WESA consists of siblings of the Will-maker or descendants of the Will-maker.  In that scenario, the ineffective gift would go to that special class member’s descendants.  If there are no alternative beneficiaries mentioned and the gift is not to a special class of person, the ineffective gift will go to the surviving residuary beneficiaries in proportion to their interests.

Ademption is another consideration for the Will-maker.  Ademption arises when a “specific gift” is no longer part of the Will-makers estate or has been converted into something else.  This often happens when a Will-maker has gifted a car (or some other specific piece of property) to someone many years earlier but before the death of the Will-maker the car is sold to someone other than the person designated under the Will.  In that scenario, the gift under the Will would fail.  However, as stated in the seminal British Columbia authority on ademption, Trebett v Arlotti-Wood, 2004 BCCA 556, ademption will not occur where the specific property in question has been changed “in name or form only” so that it “exists as substantially the same thing, although in a different shape.”  What is considered a change “in name or form only” has been a litigious matter where answers vary considerably.

In regards to ademption, if the specific gift was sold by a nominee (attorney or representative) before the death of the Will-maker, the beneficiary of the gift is entitled to receive from the Will-maker’s estate an amount equivalent to the proceeds of the gift as if the will had contained a specific gift to the beneficiary of that amount.  In other words, the beneficiary will not receive the exact gift stipulated in the Will but will receive the cash proceeds of the sale of that specific gift.  This scenario is governed by s. 48 of the WESA.

“It has often been said that the other bank of the river Styx is lined with the shades of dissatisfied testators waiting to receive their judicial parsonages from those who have misconstrued their wills”  

Dying Without a Will – Intestacy Distribution

When a person dies in British Columbia without a valid Will they are deemed to have died “intestate”.  Since the person who died does not have a Will that distributes their property, there has to be a mechanism for the distribution of that property.  That mechanism is found in the Wills, Estate and Succession Act of British Columbia (“WESA”).

Intestacy distribution depends on the intestate’s “next of kin”.  If the intestate has a spouse (which includes legally married spouses and those common law spouses that meet the definition under WESA) but no other descendants (which means all lineal descendants through all generations), the spouse would receive the entire estate from the intestate.  This is governed by s. 20 of the WESA.

S.21 of the WESA covers the scenario of an intestate leaving a spouse and descendants.

21(2) If a person dies without a Will leaving a spouse and surviving descendants, the following must be distributed from the intestate estate to the spouse:

(a) the household furnishings;

(b) a preferential share of the intestate estate in accordance with subsection (3) or (4).

(3) If all descendants referred to in subsection (2) are descendants of both the intestate and the spouse, the preferential share of the spouse is $300,000, or a greater amount if prescribed.

(4) If all descendants referred to in subsection (2) are not common to the intestate and the spouse, the preferential share of the spouse is $150,000, or a greater amount if prescribed.

(5) If the net value of an intestate estate is less than the spouse’s preferential share under subsection (3) or (4), the intestate estate must be distributed to the spouse.

(6) If the net value of an intestate estate is the same as or greater than the spouse’s preferential share under subsection (3) or (4),

(a) the spouse has a charge on the intestate estate for the amount of the spouse’s preferential share under subsection (3) or (4), and

(b) the residue of the intestate estate, after satisfaction of the spouse’s preferential share, must be distributed as follows:

(i) one half to the spouse;

(ii) one half to the intestate’s descendants.

The last scenario that will be discussed in this blog will be if the intestate leaves no spouse but leaves descendants or relatives.  This scenario is governed by s.23 of WESA.

When there is no spouse the intestate’s estate shall be distributed firstly to the intestate’s descendants.  If there are no descendants then the estate will be distributed to the intestate’s parents.  If there are no parents then the estate will be distributed to the descendants of the intestates parents which will include brothers and sisters of the intestate and then to the nieces and nephews of the intestate.  If there are no descendants of the parents of the intestate the estate shall be distributed to the grandparents of the intestate.  If there are no grandparents, the estate shall be distributed to the great-grandparents of the intestate and, finally, if there are no relatives of the intestate living, the estate shall be distributed to the government.

As the above indicates, intestacy distribution can be intricate and convoluted.  If you have any questions regarding the law surrounding estates feel free to contact Heath Law LLP.

Many people own a home or other assets with their spouse or another person. One should consider what will happen to the property when the other owner dies. In some cases this may lead to litigation.

Types of Ownership

When a property is owned by more than one person, it can be owned as a tenancy in common or as a joint tenancy. The main difference between these two types of ownership is what happens when one of the owners dies.

In a tenancy in common each person owns an undivided interest in the asset. Therefore, if people own an asset as tenants in common and one of the owner’s dies, his or her interest passes to his or her estate. If the asset is held by the estate, the deceased owner’s interest in the property will be distributed according to that person’s will or according to the laws of intestacy (when a person dies without a will)

If an asset is owned in joint tenancy, the right of survivorship applies which means that on death, the deceased’s person’s interest in the asset automatically passes to the surviving owner.

As people often do not think about how their assets are owned, the owners’ intention when they purchased the asset as to the type or form of ownership may not be obvious.

The Owner’s Intention

Where the deceased owner’s intention is unclear, litigation may result to determine what the owner intended and who will receive the asset. If the other owner is claiming that the asset is held in joint tenancy, the beneficiaries under the will or the deceased’s next of kin who would inherit under intestacy may dispute the type of ownership.

Estate litigation may help determine the deceased’s intent when he or she purchased the asset or when he or she gave the other owner an interest in the asset. Unless there is evidence to the contrary, the law presumes that when two people own land, they own the land as tenants in common. However, if there is clear evidence that the deceased person intended to own the asset in joint tenancy and intended to give his or her interest to the other owner on his or her death by right of survivorship, the transfer will be valid and the property will remain with the surviving joint tenant. If it does not appear that the deceased person intended to give the other owner the right of survivorship, a Court may determine that a resulting trust applies and that the other owner holds the deceased’s person’s interest in trust for his or her estate.

Ending a Joint Tenancy

One of the owners who wishes to end the joint tenancy and prevent the right of survivorship from becoming effective on death, may sever the joint tenancy on his or her own. Once an owner severs a joint tenancy, the ownership of the property transfers to a tenancy in common.

An owner may sever a joint tenancy:

  • by registering a transfer of the property at the Land Titles Office to him or herself;
  • by reaching a written agreement with the other owner; or
  • inadvertently, where the surrounding circumstances suggest that the ownership has been severed. For example, a joint tenancy may be severed if a couple divorces.